佛光山佛陀紀念館

喬達摩
喬達摩>第120期

佛經傳譯的一代大師:玄奘


文/佛館國際組 Buddha Museum International Affairs Team 圖/佛館編輯組 Buddha Museum Editorial Team

玄奘三藏,隋大業八年,洛陽度僧,主考官鄭善果見師年方十二歲,即發願遠紹如來家業,近光佛教大法,志願宏偉,特准出家。因慨嘆各處教法異說紛紜,尤其諸漢譯佛典的義理解釋不一,決心親至西方取經,追源考證梵文原典以解眾惑。二十六歲孤身隻影,越過雪山,穿過沙漠,沿途瞻禮聖蹟、參謁名師,遍習大小乘經論。

玄奘歷經十七年,取經歸國,致力譯經事業,為中國佛教史上四大翻譯家之一。其中玄奘大師作為佛經傳譯的一代大師,提出「五不翻」的翻譯原則。對於佛教經典傳譯及各語言翻譯的原則,影響深遠。

佛陀紀念館本館前方兩側座落著八宗祖師,象徵人間佛教中的中國八大宗派。其中玄奘創立法相唯識宗,因精於經、律、論三藏,人稱三藏大師。師集中國最偉大之佛學家、譯經家、外交家、地理學家於一身。

During the Sui Dynasty, twelve-year-old Xuanzang renounced in Luoyang. He was granted special permission to do so by the chief examiner, who was moved by his vows to promote Buddhism. When he found discrepancies among translated Buddhist texts and their interpretations, he was determined to travel to India in search of the original Sanskrit texts. At the age of 26, he began his long and arduous journey to the west. Along the way he visited sacred sites and studied various sutras and sastras under famous teachers.

After seventeen years, Xuanzang returned to China with numerous Buddhist texts. He then devoted himself to translation and became recognized as one of the Four Great Translators. As a great translation master of Buddhist texts, he proclaimed a theory of Five Untranslatables. This theory has a great influence on Buddhist scriptural translation, as well as the later multilingual translation.

The Eight Buddhist Patriarchs located along the front of the Main Hall symbolize propagation of the Eight Chinese Schools in Humanistic Buddhism. Xuanzang founded the Faxiang School and was known as the Tripitaka Master because of his profound understanding of sutras, vinayas, and sastras. As a Buddhist scholar, translator, diplomat, and geographer, Xuanzang is regarded as one of the most prominent Buddhist in Chinese history.

Heart Sutra translated by Xuanzang