佛光山佛陀紀念館

喬達摩
喬達摩>第121期

孕育中華文化藝術之美─佛教石窟


文/節錄自佛光山開山 星雲大師《人間佛教回歸佛陀本懷》 Humanistic Buddhism: Holding True to the Original Intents of Buddha by Venerable Master Hsing Yun, Founding Master of Fo Guang Shan   圖/《世界佛教美術圖說大辭典》 Encyclopedia of Buddhist Arts

說起佛教藝術,在印度,以阿姜達石窟群最為代表,成為世界的瑰寶,之後光大於中國。在中國藝術中,不論是建築、雕刻、繪畫、書法等,凡具有高度代表性的藝術作品,無不與佛教有關。例如,當今列入世界文化遺產的敦煌、雲崗、龍門石窟等,稱得上是集建築、雕刻、繪畫等於一身的東方美術館。

河南龍門石窟,那雕刻佛菩薩像的姿態,彷彿讓我們走回了唐朝時期。因為唐代的人士重視人體的健壯、豐美,好比唐朝第一美人楊貴妃、第一位女皇武則天等,都是姿態豐美的女士。那個時期,雕刻的藝工們把這許多佛像人間化,都表現出人間佛教的時代精神。此外,在絲路、新疆那一帶,佛教的洞窟也是相當豐富,可以看出早期佛教在那裡發展的情況,投注多少人的心血、信心。希望在復興中華文化的現在,要知道佛教藝術之美,是中華文化裡取之不盡的寶藏。

The archetype of Buddhist art would be the Ajanta Caves in India. In China, it took shape in the form of architecture, carvings, paintings and calligraphy. Many examples of Buddhist art remaining today are considered masterpieces. For example, the UNESCO has listed the Dunhuang, Yungang, and Longmen Caves as Cultural Heritages. These caves are said to be the greatest natural museums of oriental Buddhist art.

Moving onto the Longmen Grottoes in Henan, the elegant postures of buddhas and bodhisattvas remind us of Tang Dynasty ladies whose beauty were revealed in their robust and lush body figures. The most iconic would be Yang Guifei and Empress Wu Zetian. Sculptures from the period portrayed buddhas and bodhisattvas with humanly statures, which is certainly in the spirit of Humanistic Buddhism. Other cave temples found along the Silk Road are also rich treasuries of carvings and paintings. The abovementioned artistic achievements by Humanistic Buddhists have been examined in the hopes of stimulating Chinese culture enriched by Buddhist art.

Longmen Grotto 1280: Vairocana Buddha, Mahakasyapa, and Bodhisattva