佛光山佛陀紀念館

展演活動

佛館首件指定古物-彩繪大悲出相圖藻井

展演地點: 佛陀紀念館本館大堂
展演時間: 永久展示

佛館首件指定古物-彩繪大悲出相圖藻井

Buddha Museum’s First Antique - Great Compassion Mantra Caissons

 

年代:1961              材質: 與臺灣檜木

Year: circa 1961              Material: Parashorea and Taiwanese Elm 

尺寸:中座藻井頂心到欄間高度為四尺一寸,直徑(跨距)為十三尺三寸。重量約二百七十公斤。龍邊及虎邊兩座藻井之高度為頂心到欄間各為四尺一寸,直徑(跨距)為十一尺五寸,重量各約一百六十公斤。

Size: The central caisson measures 4 feet and 1 inch tall in height, spans 13 feet and 3 inches in diameter, and weighs about 270 kg. The flanking caissons each measure 4 feet and 1 inch in height, spans 11 feet and 5 inches in diameter, and weighs about 160 kg. 

高雄大崗山一帶觀音信仰盛行,當地創建於1908(日治時期)的龍湖庵是臺灣第一座專供女眾修行的大叢林,寺院建築與裝飾藝術見證了當時臺灣融合西方、日式與傳統閩南風格的宗教藝術與歷史文化,是一座深具時代特色與工匠技藝的寺廟建築。

The Guanyin faith in the Dagangshan area of Kaohsiung is prevalent. The local Longhu Nunnery, which was founded in 1908 during the Japanese occupation period is the first Taiwanese monastery dedicated to female practitioners. The temple architecture and decorative arts reflected the integration of Western and Japanese styles, as well as the traditional Minnan religious art and historical culture. 

「紫竹林中觀自在,落伽山外法無邊」,龍湖庵的大悲樓中以實木構成的三座藻井,係配合樓名以大悲咒的大悲出相圖為主題,特邀來自臺南的畫師繪製而成,筆法流暢設色雅緻,2017年因寺廟拆除重建而由該寺住持印悟法師捐贈給以人間佛教為核心精神的佛陀紀念館移地保存。藻井的結構與彩繪圖像珍貴罕見,所保留的工藝技術也見證了該時期臺灣宗教建築特色與歷史文化變遷,具有重要價值,而被國家指定為古物。

The three wooden caissons in the Great Compassion Building of Longhu Nunnery are painted with the illustrations of the Great Compassion Mantra Verses. The artists of these illustrations were specially invited from Tainan. In 2017, due to the demolition and reconstruction of the temple, the abbess donated the caissons to the Buddha Museum. The architectural structure and painted images show a rare craftsmanship that was retained during a time period when religious architecture and historical culture underwent changes. Due to its importance, it has been designated as an antique.

三座藻井樣式不同於一般斗拱式多層次的網狀藻井,罕見之「穹窿頂」造型與宋式《營造法規》中的鬬八藻井相似。中座藻井為陽馬板形式,龍虎兩邊藻井背部則以弧形木構與榫接工法組成,藻井下方用來採光及換氣的24個實木雕刻欄間,則是當時臺灣木匠技藝受到日式建築裝飾的影響,以透雕的蓮蓬與蓮藕等水生植物來蘊藏防火的象形意義。藻井木材為日治時期開始常被使用的柳與臺灣檜木,也反映出當時就地取材的時代性。

The three caissions are structured differently from regular caissons designed with multiple layers and bracket sets. Instead, it is shaped as a rare dome-shaped ceiling similar to Chinese Song dynasty octagonal caissons. The central caisson is in the form of a dome. The flanking caissons are composed of curved wood structures conjoined using splicing method. The 24 columns used for lighting and ventilation under the caissons show Taiwanese carpentry skills influenced by Japanese architecture, and they were decorated with the openwork of lotuses and lotus roots to symbolize fire prevention. The wood caissions were made of Parashorea and Taiwanese Elm, which were often used during the Japanese occupation period. It also reflects the use of local materials at that time.

藻井上的彩繪大悲出相圖雖然是依據當時流行於民間的版本所繪,畫師卻以分外虔誠禮佛之心來呈現每尊菩薩的法相莊嚴與教化意義,隸書體的咒語文字與完整名相之註腳,因碩果僅存而具有重要的價值。畫師用手指與手掌進行的搨色技法,更讓每尊菩薩像臉部與手部呈現暈染及漸層的效果。三座藻井的「大悲出相圖」以《大悲心陀羅尼經》84句為圖文藍本,最後再加上四大天王圖像,依據方位,從中座面對大雄寶殿依據逆時針方向繪製第116幅大悲出相圖,之後由龍邊再到虎邊,依據東,北,西,南四個方位繪製,共88幅大悲出相圖。藻井上還有鸚鵡請佛等16幅佛典故事、詩偈與警世語,組成了104幅寓意深遠的圖像。龍虎兩邊各4幅的幡蓋,則象徵著永離八難之苦。中座還有兩輪連續環繞其上的「心」與「佛」字,揭示了「欲見佛土,先淨其心」的深意。

Although the Great Compassion Mantra Caissons were painted according to the popular folk version at that time, the painter, however, presented the Bodhisattvas in a solemn style. The text and inscriptions were written in clerical script. The painter used fingers and palms to apply the colors, creating a gradient effect on the face and hands of each bodhisattva. The three wooden Caissons illustrate the 84 verses of the Great Compassion Mantra and the Four Heavenly Kings. The first sixteen verses were painted counterclockwise from the central caisson, and the remaining verses were painted on the flanking caissions. Apart from the 88 illustrations, there are also 16 Buddhist stories, verses and advices, forming 104 images in all. The four canopies painted on the flanking caissons symbolize freedom from the Eight Dangers. The central caisson is surrounded with the Chinese character of “heart” and “Buddha”, indicating that “one should purify one’s heart before seeing the Buddha land.” 

三座已有60多年歷史的珍貴古物,於20177月由文化部文化資產保存研究中心首創以不解體方式進行移地保存,經過長達一年多的專業修復,團隊在遵守真實性的國際原則下以清潔與加固為主,於必要處進行可逆性的填補與全色處理,並與佛陀紀念館館長如常法師及佛光淨土文教基金會執行長慧知法師等共同討論,如何以不同於原址保存的方式,讓藻井的文化資產價值,在佛陀紀念館本館的普陀洛伽山觀音殿前,重新得以被詮釋與弘揚。今(2019)511日的佛誕節,三座藻井由佛光山住持心保和尚主持上架法會後,在佛陀紀念館繼續承接著讓世人認識屬於臺灣這片土地與人民共同生活下產生的信仰、藝術與歷史文化之新使命,「大悲大咒通地天,一百一千十王歡,大慈大悲能祛病,孽鏡一照匾高懸」,相信透過觀音菩薩的大悲願力也將讓參觀者均能得到「清心見佛」的信心、歡喜、希望與方便。

On July 2017, the three precious antiquities with more than 60 years history are moved to Buddha Museum for preservation by the Institute of Cultural Heritage Research Preservation, Ministry of Culture. Over a year of professional maintenance, the caissions underwent reversible and panchromatic processing on necessary parts. The team also discussed with Venerable Ru Chang, Director of Fo Guang Shan Buddha Museum, and Venerable Hui Zhi, Director of FGS Pure Land Cultural & Educational Foundation on how to better preserve the caissions. In celebration of the Buddha’s Birthday Celebration, the three caissons will be installed at the Main Hall in front of the Avalokitesvara Shrine on 11th May. The ceremony will be hosted by Abbot Most Venerable Hsin Bao. By means of Avalokitesvara’s great compassion, we hope that visitors can gain confidence and skillful means, and be filled with joy and hope.